The type of medical oxygen that is most frequently utilized is concentrated oxygen. It is available in higher concentrations than the 21% oxygen content of ambient air. The term "40 volume" or "40 percent" has also been used occasionally. Patients who have experienced breathing difficulties as a result of lung disease utilize this sort of medical oxygen.
By cooling oxygen down below its boiling point of -183 degrees Celsius, liquid medical oxygen, also known as LMO, is made. Transporting, storing, and inhaling liquids is simpler than doing so with gases. Only at extremely low temperatures, between -190 and -183 degrees Celsius, does liquid medicinal oxygen remain liquid. It has no color and no smell. The liquid will change back into its molecular gas state when kept at ambient temperature. PET bottles, plastic cylinders, or glass containers are typically used for retail sales.
Air Separation Plants, or ASPs, are the most widely used way of producing oxygen separation. The main purpose of ASPs is to produce medicinal oxygen from nitrogen and oxygen-rich air. The highest conversion efficiency is achieved by ASP, which is more expensive than air separation membrane systems.
A huge volume of pure oxygen (usually, O2 99.5% by mole fraction) is combined with ambient air in an ASP and transported into a low-pressure location where the oxygen is discharged and stored.
The major point to remember while maintenance is:
(a) For a period of two weeks, the vendor/supplier must plan adequate on-site training for the authorized health facility staff.
(b) The vendor or supplier is required to offer refresher training when a service engineer is scheduled to perform planned preventive maintenance.
(c) The provider shall be accountable to the hospital management committee for the maintenance, repair, and safety of the entire installation and LMO connected to the liquid oxygen vessel.
(d) The oxygen tank, together with any related machinery, control panels, pipelines, etc., shall be covered by CAMC for a period of five years.
(e) The vendor or provider must offer an online helpdesk and complaint system.
In an open area of the hospital's grounds, LMO tanks are installed vertically. The location should be chosen in accordance with PESO guidelines. The designated area should be 9M (W) X 16M. (L) at ground level and ought to be easily accessible for the LMO tanker to and from the location. The most recent edition of the following codes must be followed while providing liquid medicinal oxygen. A LMO tank should not be installed indoors. or in close proximity to pits or drains. There shouldn't be any utility cables or overhead electrical lines on the property. The area should be gated for entry and exit and fenced. water connection and fire extinguishers illumination signs about safety, an earthen pit, etc.
Depending on how much the user needs, many types of containers are used to store, transport, and handle liquid oxygen. The Dewar, cryogenic liquid cylinder, and cryogenic storage tanks are some of the container types in use. All tanks have circuits to control product fill, pressure buildup, pressure relief, product withdrawal, and tank vacuum. They are also vacuum insulated. Liquid transfer or withdrawal lines are used to safely extract liquid products from either Dewars or cryogenic liquid cylinders. These lines are insulated to reduce the loss of liquid product to gas.
Exposure to freezing temperatures can result in serious burn injuries and over pressurization due to the expansion of tiny huge volumes of gas produced from small amounts of liquid in equipment with poor ventilation. Oxygen enrichment of the ambient environment (defined as an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen), and the potential for a combustion event if oxygen is allowed to come into contact with an incompatible substance material. Liquid oxygen's low temperature and the vapors it emits not only present a major burn risk to human tissues but can also weaken materials or architecture. and turn fragile enough to break.
Any garment that has come in contact with liquid oxygen, been splashed with it, drenched in it, or been exposed to high oxygen levels needs to be removed right away and allowed to air out for at least an hour. Until their clothing is entirely clear of any excess oxygen, personnel should remain in a place with good ventilation and stay away from any source of ignition. Oxygen-soaked clothing is easily ignited and burns ferociously.
NOTE: The production of process gases for use in boilers, turbines, and other power-generating machinery is carried out by major industrial and power plants using ASPs. Incoming air is mixed with lower purity synthesis gas from a syngas generator feeding a steam methane reformer at low pressure (1-150 PSIG) provided by a condensing steam reforming unit, with cryogenic separation necessarily taking place at ambient temperature and pressure, to produce these process gases from the air with gaseous purity ranging from 99.95 percent N2+O2 to 99.99 percent N2 or O2 (0-60 PSIG).